CNC machine tools play an important role in modern manufacturing, and their accuracy and stability are crucial for machining quality. After prolonged use of the machine tool, the accuracy of the machine tool may deviate due to factors such as working environment, wear, and temperature changes. This article will explore the importance of whether CNC machine tools need to be calibrated and introduce some commonly used calibration methods to ensure the accuracy and processing quality of the machine tool.
1、 The Importance of CNC Machine Tool Calibration
The calibration of CNC machine tools is crucial for ensuring machining quality and production efficiency. The following are several important aspects of CNC machine tool calibration:
a. Accuracy assurance: Calibration can eliminate machine tool accuracy deviations caused by long-term use and environmental changes, ensuring that the size and shape of the machined parts meet the requirements.
b. Process stability: Calibration can adjust various parameters of the machine tool to maintain stability during the processing process, improving the consistency and stability of processing quality.
c. Cutting quality improvement: Correction can optimize the cutting performance of the machine tool, reduce the impact of vibration and cutting force, and improve the smoothness and accuracy of the cutting surface.
d. Production efficiency improvement: Through correction, it can reduce the number of processing failures and reprocesses caused by machine tool errors, improve production efficiency and resource utilization.
2、 Common Methods for Calibration of CNC Machine Tools
According to different calibration targets and machine types, the calibration methods of CNC machine tools also vary. The following are several commonly used calibration methods for CNC machine tools:
a. Geometric correction: By adjusting the geometric parameters of the machine tool, such as the parallelism, perpendicularity, and positional deviation of the coordinate axis, the geometric accuracy of the machine tool is corrected.
b. Sensor measurement calibration: Utilize sensors to measure the motion trajectory and position of the machine tool, and make corrections and adjustments based on the measurement results to improve the position accuracy and motion trajectory accuracy of the machine tool.
c. Thermal stability correction: Due to the significant impact of temperature changes on the accuracy of the machine tool, temperature sensors can be used to monitor the temperature changes of the machine tool, and compensation and correction can be made based on the temperature changes to maintain the stability and accuracy of the machine tool.
d. Tool correction: The wear and deviation of the tool directly affect the machining quality, so regular replacement and correction of the tool is necessary to ensure the geometric accuracy and cutting performance of the cutting tool.
e. Axial correction: By measuring and adjusting the motion range and stroke of each axis of the machine tool, to ensure the accuracy and consistency of axial motion.
3、 Precautions for CNC machine tool calibration
When calibrating CNC machine tools, it is necessary to pay attention to the following aspects:
a. Regular maintenance: Conduct regular maintenance work on the machine tool, including cleaning, lubrication, and fastening, to ensure the normal operation and stability of the machine tool.
b. Calibration tools: Select appropriate calibration tools and equipment to ensure the accuracy and reliability of measurement and calibration.
c. Operation training: Operators need to receive relevant training and guidance, understand the calibration methods and operating procedures of the machine tool, to ensure correct operation and calibration process.
d. Record and Track: Establish a record and track system for machine tool calibration, recording the calibration time, results, and maintenance status, in order to promptly identify and solve potential problems.